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Almås, A-J and Hygen, H O (2012) Impacts of sea level rise towards 2100 on buildings in Norway. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 245-59.

Brahmi, B F, Sassi Boudemagh, S, Kitouni, I and Kamari, A (2022) IPD and BIM-focussed methodology in renovation of heritage buildings. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 186–206.

Chang, Y, Wilkinson, S, Seville, E and Potangaroa, R (2012) Changes in resource need for post-disaster reconstruction: a longitudinal study in China. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 327-36.

Ford, B, Wilson, R, Gillott, M, Ibraheem, O, Salmeron, J and Sanchez, F J (2012) Passive downdraught evaporative cooling: performance in a prototype house. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 290-304.

Glad, W (2012) Housing renovation and energy systems: the need for social learning. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 274-89.

Gruneberg, S and Fraser, B (2012) Construction purchasing power parities: potential roles and limitations. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 348-56.

Healy, D P (2012) Influence of the carbon intensity of electricity on carbon savings from CHP. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 317-26.

Hu, M, Nippala, E, Kallioharju, K and Pelsmakers, S (2022) Monte Carlo simulation approach to understand the cost variance for energy retrofit projects: comparative study of Finland and the United States. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 207–22.

Jewell, C and Flanagan, R (2012) Measuring construction professional services exports: a case for change. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 337-47.

Jowkar, M, Temeljotov-Salaj, A, Lindkvist, C M and Støre-Valen, M (2022) Sustainable building renovation in residential buildings: barriers and potential motivations in Norwegian culture. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 161–72.

Le, A T H, Domingo, N, Rasheed, E and Park, K (2022) Strategic collaboration in managing existing buildings in New Zealand's state schools: school managers' perspectives. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 173–85.

Parkinson, A T, Friedman, K S, Hacking, T, Cooke, A J and Guthrie, P M (2012) Exploring scenarios for the future of energy management in UK property. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 373-88.

Rajala, P, Ylä-Kujala, A, Sinkkonen, T and Kärri, T (2022) Profitability in construction: how does building renovation business fare compared to new building business. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 223–37.

Raslan, R and Davies, M (2012) Legislating building energy performance: putting EU policy into practice. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 305-16.

Sunikka-Blank, M and Galvin, R (2012) Introducing the prebound effect: the gap between performance and actual energy consumption. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 260-73.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: building performance; thermal retrofits; climate policy; energy rating; energy policy; energy use behaviour
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0961-3218
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.690952
  • Abstract:
    German regulations for the thermal renovation of existing homes demand high thermal standards, which the government claims are technically and economically feasible. This paper examines existing data on 3400 German homes; their calculated energy performance ratings (EPR) are then plotted against the actual measured consumption. The results indicate that occupants consume, on average, 30% less heating energy than the calculated rating. This phenomenon is identified as the "prebound" effect and increases with the calculated rating. The opposite phenomenon, the rebound effect, tends to occur for low-energy dwellings, where occupants consume more than the rating. A similar phenomenon has been recognized in recent Dutch, Belgian, French and UK studies, suggesting policy implications in two directions. Firstly, using a dwelling's energy rating to predict fuel and CO2 savings through retrofits tends to overestimate savings, underestimate the payback time and possibly discourage cost-effective, incremental improvements. Secondly, the potential fuel and CO2 savings through non-technical measures such as occupant behaviour may well be far larger than is generally assumed in policies so policy-makers need a better understanding of what drives or inhibits occupants' decisions.