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Almås, A-J and Hygen, H O (2012) Impacts of sea level rise towards 2100 on buildings in Norway. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 245-59.

Brahmi, B F, Sassi Boudemagh, S, Kitouni, I and Kamari, A (2022) IPD and BIM-focussed methodology in renovation of heritage buildings. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 186–206.

Chang, Y, Wilkinson, S, Seville, E and Potangaroa, R (2012) Changes in resource need for post-disaster reconstruction: a longitudinal study in China. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 327-36.

Ford, B, Wilson, R, Gillott, M, Ibraheem, O, Salmeron, J and Sanchez, F J (2012) Passive downdraught evaporative cooling: performance in a prototype house. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 290-304.

Glad, W (2012) Housing renovation and energy systems: the need for social learning. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 274-89.

Gruneberg, S and Fraser, B (2012) Construction purchasing power parities: potential roles and limitations. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 348-56.

Healy, D P (2012) Influence of the carbon intensity of electricity on carbon savings from CHP. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 317-26.

Hu, M, Nippala, E, Kallioharju, K and Pelsmakers, S (2022) Monte Carlo simulation approach to understand the cost variance for energy retrofit projects: comparative study of Finland and the United States. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 207–22.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: Cost; Finland; construction cost; renovation; Monte Carlo simulation;
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0144-6193
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2022.2034906
  • Abstract:
    Energy-efficient building is often characterised with higher construction costs. There is a large variance in energy-efficient building construction costs, especially in retrofit projects. A lack of understanding of cost variance and ambiguity of cost-optimal practices has impeded the adoption of energy retrofit practices globally. To respond to such a knowledge gap, a comparative study was conducted on energy retrofit projects on residential buildings in Finland and the United States. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the coefficient of variation for construction costs and the potential reasons behind the variations. The specific aims of this study are (a) to gain a deeper understanding of construction cost variances in energy retrofit projects, (b) to identify the most influential cost items, and (c) to understand the correlations among different cost items. For this analysis, a database including 10 Finnish buildings and 7 US buildings was created, and actual construction cost data was collected. The results showed the following: (1) US projects had a larger total construction cost variance with highly skewed distribution, and Finnish energy retrofit projects had a cost distribution similar to conventional retrofit projects; (2) the two most significant construction cost factors for both countries were non-energy related cost items and the building envelope, rather than the mechanical system (heating and ventilation) as commonly perceived; and (3) the larger construction cost variance in the United States may be associated with the unfamiliarity of energy-efficient technologies and varied construction methods in different regions. The insights and suggestions derived from those findings are discussed in the conclusion.

Jewell, C and Flanagan, R (2012) Measuring construction professional services exports: a case for change. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 337-47.

Jowkar, M, Temeljotov-Salaj, A, Lindkvist, C M and Støre-Valen, M (2022) Sustainable building renovation in residential buildings: barriers and potential motivations in Norwegian culture. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 161–72.

Le, A T H, Domingo, N, Rasheed, E and Park, K (2022) Strategic collaboration in managing existing buildings in New Zealand's state schools: school managers' perspectives. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 173–85.

Parkinson, A T, Friedman, K S, Hacking, T, Cooke, A J and Guthrie, P M (2012) Exploring scenarios for the future of energy management in UK property. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 373-88.

Rajala, P, Ylä-Kujala, A, Sinkkonen, T and Kärri, T (2022) Profitability in construction: how does building renovation business fare compared to new building business. Construction Management and Economics, 40(03), 223–37.

Raslan, R and Davies, M (2012) Legislating building energy performance: putting EU policy into practice. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 305-16.

Sunikka-Blank, M and Galvin, R (2012) Introducing the prebound effect: the gap between performance and actual energy consumption. Building Research & Information, 40(03), 260-73.