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Baharudin, M R, Nasruddin, H N, Rahman, A A, Mahadi, M R and Noor, S B M (2018) Numerical model for individual time calculation for evacuation among secondary students. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 450–70.

Chung, H C P and Adeyeye, K (2018) Structural flood damage and the efficacy of property-level flood protection. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 471–99.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: Flooding; Building retrofit; Flood damage; Flood repair; Property-level protection;
  • ISBN/ISSN: 2398-4708
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBPA-09-2017-0040
  • Abstract:
    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the flood impact on a detached dwelling based on physical attributes related to the positioning, form and orientation of the house, and second, to investigate the effectiveness of property-level protection (PLP) to mitigate the direct structural damage of the house and the degree of floodwater ingress within the house. Design/methodology/approach The methods included modelling and simulation within the ANSYS Fluent® computational fluid dynamics software. Flooding scenarios with constrained parameters using theoretical modelling methods/tools were used to test the research hypotheses. Therefore, the results obtained will match the what-if scenarios considered if/based on the standard equations and assumptions made in the idealised model. Findings It was found that the position, orientation and form of an individual dwelling with brick and block construction informs the impact of the applied pressure on the structure and water ingress. Increase in pressure on the structure was noted from 0.3 m. All examined PLP mitigated the risk of structural damage if applied in consideration with other interventions e.g. mortar sealing. The use of non-return valves could potentially increase the pressure on the structure, but was also found to be effective in reducing water ingress. Findings should be considered in conjunction with the assumptions and exceptions of this study. Research limitations/implications The limitations of this study are that the findings are based on an idealised model of a single detached house, with no landscape obstruction to the watercourse. This mathematical approach concerned with developing the normative models may therefore not fully describe the real-world complex phenomena. But it provides the first vision and an objective basis to answer the questions under study, and to propose usable outputs. Flooding caused from internal sources (e.g. bursting of pipes, roof leaks) or seepage from the ground and moisture through the walls were excluded. Building content was not modelled. Practical implications Common property-level flood interventions are typically tested to mitigate water ingress to the house. This study extends this approach to include the prevention of structural damage to the external walls; this can help to avoid the indiscriminate use of property-level flood prevention solutions without full understanding of their degree of effectiveness or impact on the building’s structural integrity. This study is practically significant because it provides outputs and means to examine which intervention(s) are better for delivering flood protection to a standard brick/block detached house type. This knowledge is highly beneficial for relevant stakeholders who can use it to deliver effective property-level flooding resilience measures. Originality/value The study provides useful insights for property owners and building professionals to explore suitable, cost-effective single property-level protection against flooding. Furthermore, the effective implementation of interventions can be used to achieve a customised, “fit for purpose” resilience retrofit.

Esteves, I C, Medeiros-Junior, R A and Medeiros, M H (2018) NDT for bridges durability assessment on urban-industrial environment in Brazil. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 500–15.

Gluch, P and Svensson, I (2018) On the nexus of changing public facilities management practices: purposive and co-creative actions across multiple levels. Construction Management and Economics, 36(05), 259–75.

Green, S D, Harty, C, Elmualim, A A, Larsen, G D and Kao, C C (2008) On the discourse of construction competitiveness. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 426–35.

Hartmann, A, Reymen, I M M J and Van Oosterom, G (2008) Factors constituting the innovation adoption environment of public clients. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 436–49.

Lee, C and Moudon, A V (2008) Neighbourhood design and physical activity. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 395–411.

Loosemore, M and Bridgeman, J (2018) The social impact of construction industry schools-based corporate volunteering. Construction Management and Economics, 36(05), 243–58.

Malmqvist, T (2008) Environmental rating methods: selecting indoor environmental quality (IEQ) aspects and indicators. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 466–85.

McDermott, V, Zhang, R P, Hopkins, A and Hayes, J (2018) Constructing safety: investigating senior executive long-term incentive plans and safety objectives in the construction sector. Construction Management and Economics, 36(05), 276–90.

Moon, H J and Augenbroe, G (2008) Empowerment of decision-makers in mould remediation. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 486–98.

Oswald, D, Sherratt, F, Smith, S D and Hallowell, M R (2018) Exploring safety management challenges for multi-national construction workforces: a UK case study. Construction Management and Economics, 36(05), 291–301.

Palaneeswaran, E, Love, P E D, Kumaraswamy, M M and Ng, T S T (2008) Mapping rework causes and effects using artificial neural networks. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 450–65.

Sanni-Anibire, M O, Hassanain, M A, Mahmoud, A S and Ahmed, W (2018) An evaluation of the functional performance of research and academic laboratories using the space syntax approach. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 516–28.

Sartori, I, Bergsdal, H, Muller, D B and Brattebo, H (2008) Towards modelling of construction, renovation and demolition activities: Norway's dwelling stock, 1900–2100. Building Research & Information, 36(05), 412–25.

Shirleyana, Hawken, S and Sunindijo, R Y (2018) City of Kampung: risk and resilience in the urban communities of Surabaya, Indonesia. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 543–68.

Yazdani Mehr, S and Wilkinson, S (2018) Technical issues and energy efficient adaptive reuse of heritage listed city halls in Queensland Australia. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 36(05), 529–42.