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Bosher, L, Dainty, A, Carrillo, P, Glass, J and Price, A (2007) Integrating disaster risk management into construction: a UK perspective. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 163–77.

Bowen, P, Pearl, R and Akintoye, A (2007) Professional ethics in the South African construction industry. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 189–205.

Chew, M Y, Conejos, S and Law, J S L (2017) Green maintainability design criteria for nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) façade coatings. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(02), 139–58.

Enshassi, A, Elzebdeh, S and Mohamed, S (2017) Drivers affecting household residents’ water and related energy consumption in residential buildings. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(02), 159–75.

Fo, P and Skitmore, x (2007) Factors facilitating construction industry development. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 178–88.

Hadidi, L, Assaf, S, Aluwfi, K and Akrawi, H (2017) The effect of ISO 9001 implementation on the customer satisfaction of the engineering design services. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(02), 176–90.

Hopkin, T, Lu, S, Rogers, P and Sexton, M (2017) Key stakeholders’ perspectives towards UK new-build housing defects. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(02), 110–23.

Mahmoud, A S, Sanni-Anibire, M O and Hassanain, M A (2017) Performance-based fire safety evacuation of an auditorium facility using a theoretical calculation method. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(02), 124–38.

McCormack, M, Treloar, G J, Palmowski, L and Crawford, R (2007) Modelling direct and indirect water requirements of construction. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 156–62.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: Construction; embodied water; environmental impacts; key indicators; water; water consumption; Australia
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0961-3218
  • URL: http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&title=Building%20Research%20%26amp%3b%20Information&issn=0961%2d3218&volume=35&issue=2&spage=156&epage=162&doi=10%2e1080%2f09613210601125383&date=2007%2d3&atitle=Modelling%20direct%20and%20indirect%20water
  • Abstract:
    Water consumed directly by the construction industry is known to be of little importance. However, water consumed in the manufacture of goods and services required by construction may be significant in the context of a building's life cycle water requirements and the national water budget. This paper evaluates the significance of water embodied in the construction of individual buildings. To do this, an input-output-based hybrid embodied water analysis was undertaken on 17 Australian non-residential case studies. It was found that there is a considerable amount of water embodied in construction. The highest value was 20.1 kilolitres (kL)/m2 gross floor area (GFA), representing many times the enclosed volume of the building, and many years worth of operational water. The water required by the main construction process is minimal. However, the water embodied in building materials is considerable. These findings suggest that the selection of elements and materials has a great impact on a building's embodied water. This research allows the construction industry to evaluate design and construction in broad environmental terms to select options that might be cost neutral or possibly cost positive while retaining their environmental integrity. The research suggests policies focused on operational water consumption alone are inadequate.

Mcdougall, J A and Swaffield, J A (2007) Transport of deformable solids within building drainage networks. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 220–32.

Pearlmutter, D, Freidin, C and Huberman, N (2007) Alternative materials for desert buildings: a comparative life cycle energy analysis. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 144–55.

Short, C A and Lomas, K J (2007) Exploiting a hybrid environmental design strategy in a US continental climate. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 119–43.

Soetanto, R, Glass, J, Dainty, A R J and Price, A D F (2007) Structural frame selection: case studies of hybrid concrete frames. Building Research & Information, 35(02), 206–19.