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Baggott S R, Oloke D, Georgakis P and Khatib J (2013) Risk and security challenges on further and higher education campuses. In: Smith, S D and Ahiaga-Dagbui, D D (Eds.), Proceedings 29th Annual ARCOM Conference, 2-4 September 2013, Reading, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 1171–1181.

  • Type: Conference Proceedings
  • Keywords: crime, risk assessment, risk perception, security, threat impact
  • ISBN/ISSN: 978-0-9552390-7-6
  • URL: http://www.arcom.ac.uk/-docs/proceedings/ar2013-1171-1181_Baggott_Oloke_Georgakis_Khatib.pdf
  • Abstract:
    For many years universities have been aware of the increasing demands on student security and safety on their campuses. The risks that are now posed through low-level crime or anti-social behaviour on campuses are many. This can undoubtedly affect their overall student experience while studying. More thought provoking; however, is the risk of a serious criminal or terrorist related incident on a campus. How is risk apportioned and assessed in a changing and challenging environment? Can risk be managed out at planning stage of building projects? Decisive decision making incorporating a strong understanding of risk intervention is needed to reduce risks on university campuses. With evidence to remind us that serious criminal activity as well as terrorist related crime is becoming more wide spread. Is it just a matter of when and not if a serious incident will occur on a university campus in the UK? The aim of this paper is to identify if staff and students perceive crime and security risks to be a relevant issue on campuses. To identify the type of serious incidents of crime that would affect campuses and how risk identification would minimise the impact on campuses Staff and student survey indicates that that there is recognition of security related risks on campuses, however, clear distinctions can be drawn between student and staff groups. Evidence to suggest that security risks from external sources and students based activity is discussed and would form the basis for risk analysis progression. Only by understanding all security risk elements from building structure, policy and regulation and crime level indicators can a full risk assessment be authenticated. This paper reviews how crime orientated risks are assessed and fully incorporated into building design. It further argues that a coordinated approach between planners, architects and users of the estate should be instrumental in the health, safety and security of its users. This will also include how global events and political issues can manifest itself on our university campuses. It is thus proposed that evidential perception of risk be researched as a way of producing authentic risk assessment criteria, which fully identifies risks to users and to the educational establishment. With such research a concise index of risk can be applied at design stage. Hence, any risk identified could be aligned to post occupation thereby avoiding retrospective architectural realignment. This research adopts a web-based, crime and risk-based survey and analysis methodology. Identifying any resulting realignment of risk assessments and redesigning of estate will be an outcome which would have the potential to improve current practices which is solely based on construction project completion risk. It is intended that further work will include a risk matrix based on street level crime figures. From this format comparators can be extrapolated against actual campus crime and risk indices of wider scale security issues at the serious crime spectrum covering organised crime and terrorism.