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Calderon, C and Keirstead, J (2012) Modelling frameworks for delivering low-carbon cities: advocating a normalized practice. Building Research & Information, 40(04), 504-17.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: built environment; carbon reduction; cities; climate policy; energy; local authorities; modelling; research challenges
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0961-3218
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.680702
  • Abstract:
    How do UK local authorities contribute to national carbon reductions? Urban energy and carbon models are emerging as a vital tool for local authorities that wish to understand the greenhouse gas emissions of their city and how to reduce them. The linkage between policy processes and tools is rarely recognized and tools are deployed ad hoc. A set of policy-relevant assessment criteria is proposed and used to review the emergent state-of-the-art in UK urban energy and carbon modelling. Drawing on the authors' own experience and the literature, a differentiation is made between accounting-style inventory tools and policy modelling tools. It is argued that although part of the same overall policy process, these two approaches lack consistency in methods and implementation. A comparison with local air pollution modelling makes this contrast apparent. A lack of clarity exists for the use of modelling in urban energy and carbon policy processes. A normalized urban modelling practice would ensure consistency while preserving local flexibility.