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Alabi, A G F, Ajiboye, T K and Olusegun, H D (2010) Investigating the cutting forces in heat treated medium carbon steel when turning on a lathe machine. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 8(01), 80–93.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: design; hardness; heat transfer; machine tools
  • ISBN/ISSN: 1726-0531
  • URL: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/17260531011034664
  • Abstract:
    Purpose: Developing countries are now fully aware of the importance of the manufacturing sector as a key factor of growth and transformation of their economy. Improved technology and method of manufacturing have produced quality products at reduced cost and this has advanced development. The study uses experimental methods based on orthogonal cutting process to measure the cutting forces using a dynamometer while machining the test specimen with a diamond cutting tool at 5° rake angle. The machining forces for the dry cutting are higher than the wet cutting in the range of 31.2-44.31, 32.09-40.67, 29.10-35.62, 29.21-45.03 and 29.94-38.74 percent for “as received”, normalized, tempered, annealed and hardened specimen, respectively. For annealed and hardened test specimen, the cutting speed of 245?rpm is ideal for machining when it gives a fine surface finish. Also for precision machining, dry turning is by far a better cost saver and cleaner option than wet turning. This is because though wet machining is relatively more expensive, it is hazardous to health. Normalized and annealed specimens require lower cutting forces and chip formation is slow. Tempering and annealing medium carbon steel facilitated rapid machining and chip formation is rapid. It is therefore an advantage to temper or anneal medium carbon steel before processing into component parts in the manufacturing industry as it saves cost and gives fine component surface finish. The paper aims to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: Tensile samples are prepared from medium carbon steel. These prepared samples were later subjected to heat-treatment operations (normalizing, hardening, tempering and annealing). Tensile test were carried out to obtain the materials' sensitive properties used in the modeling equations. An experimental method based on orthogonal cutting is adopted to measure the machining forces using techquipment dynamometer. Findings: It is observed that as tu increases, Fc increases for all conditions, i.e. as tu increases, tool-chip contact area increases and increasing frictional force, also volume of metal removal increase resulting in increasing energy input. Fc values is highest for the normalized followed by that of the annealed. They are less for hardened and tempered. This is because of the mode of chip formation whereby ductile structures give continuous chips as against discontinuous structure for the hardened and quenched structures. Input energy is high for the former and low for the later. This is confirmed by the m values and observed chips. Research limitations/implications: There is no limitation, except for the instrumentation. On availability of the appropriate equipment, like the Kystler dynamometer for the correct reading of the experimental results. Practical implications: The implication is limited to the workshop hazard during the experiment.