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Akintoye, A and Fitzgerald, E (1995) Design and build: a survey of architects' views. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 2(01), 27–44.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: architect; design and build; procurement
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0969-9988
  • URL:
  • Abstract:
    Design and build has increased in its use for construction procurement in recent times. However, its performance as a procurement method has been widely criticized by professionals in the construction industry. This paper reports a survey of 40 architects, using a structured questionnaire to investigate the performance of contractorled design and build in project procurement. Although 20% of architects' private sector workload (and 8% of public sector) is derived from D&B, they perceive this procurement type to involve sacrificing product quality and design innovation. Where clients insist on a choice of D&B, architects generally prefer the use of either novation D&B or develop and construct, rather than 'traditional' D&B.