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Bayat, M, Khanzadi, M, Nasirzadeh, F and Chavoshian, A (2020) Financial conflict resolution model in BOT contracts using bargaining game theory. Construction Innovation , 20(01), 18–42.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: Finance; Concession; Equity; Contract; Bargaining; BOT;
  • ISBN/ISSN: 1471-4175
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1108/CI-12-2018-0099
  • Abstract:
    This study aims to determine the optimal value of concession period length in combination with capital structure in build–operate–transfer (BOT) contracts, based on direct negotiation procurement and considering the conflicting financial interests of different parties involved in the project. Design/methodology/approach The financial model of a BOT project is developed considering all the influencing factors. Then, fuzzy set theory is used to take into account the existing risks and uncertainties. Bilateral bargaining game based on alternating-offers protocol is applied between the government and the sponsor to divide project financial benefit considering the lender’s requirements. Finally, concession period and equity level will be determined simultaneously according to the sponsor’s and government’s share of project financial benefit and the lender’s requirements. Findings The proposed model is implemented on a real case study, and a fair and efficient agreement on concession period length and capital structure is achieved between the government and the sponsor considering the lender’s requirements. It is revealed that being the first proposer in the bargaining process will affect the concession period length; however, it will not affect the equity level. Moreover, it is shown that considering income tax as a part of government’s financial benefit increases the length of concession period. Research limitations/implications The presented model concentrates on direct negotiation procurement in BOT projects where the sponsor and government bargain on dividing financial benefits of project. It is assumed that the product/service price is determined before according to market analysis or users’ affordability. All the revenue of project during concession period is assumed to belong to the sponsor. Practical implications The proposed model provides a practical tool to aid BOT participants to reach a fair and efficient agreement on concession period and capital structure. This could prevent failing or prolonging the negotiation and costly renegotiation. Originality/value By investigation of previous studies, it is revealed that none of them can determine the optimal value of concession period length and capital structure simultaneously considering the BOT negotiation process and different financial interests of parties involved in the project. The proposed model presents a new approach to determine the financial variables considering the conflicting interests of involved parties. The other novelty aspects of the presented model are as follows: introducing a new approach for calculating the sponsor and the government’s share of project financial benefit that will affect the determination of the concession period length and considering the effect of existing risks and uncertainties on final agreement between the involved parties using fuzzy set theory.