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Bernold, L E (2002) Spatial Integration in Construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128(05), 400–8.

  • Type: Journal Article
  • Keywords: Surveys; Construction; Computer applications; Information; Global positioning; construction industry; Global Positioning System; laser beam applications; equipment evaluation; surveying; civil engineering;
  • ISBN/ISSN: 0733-9364
  • URL: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2002)128:5(400)
  • Abstract:
    Work in construction always requires moving within, and interacting with, a complex environment while handling heavy materials and building elements to be joined, inserted, or aligned. Modern design software is able to digitally model all of those elements in their spatially correct configuration, and without interference. When it comes to the actual construction, however, the spatial models do not find any use. Twenty years after the manufacturing industry began using electronic design data to control their machinery, construction is also getting ready to move away from its longstanding tradition of working with paper-based blueprints. The newest steps on the path toward the use of three-dimensional digital design data in support of site operation are stimulated by the global positioning system and the many uses of lasers. Surveying has always performed critical functions on construction sites, such as marking building layouts, anchor bolts, concrete formwork, or bridge bearings. The objective of spatial integration in construction is to digitally merge spatial design data with the digital model of equipment working on implementing the design. This paper will briefly review historical advancements in “perfecting” the surveying technology before presenting three examples of a quantum leap in the way we design, plan, and control construction projects in the future.